Acoustic system - what is it, device, what is it for, characteristics, pros and cons

To listen to music and watch movies with high-quality sound, you need special equipment. The acoustic system by design, types and purpose may be different. The market offers a wide range of models with their own characteristics.

What is an acoustic system?

It should be said right away that the speaker system is not the same as the speakers. This equipment is included, with its help various sounds and music are reproduced. Sometimes this term is applied to speakers, columns, loudspeakers, which is not entirely true. The principle of operation is based on the conversion of electrical impulses into vibrations of the emitter, and then into sound waves. Design solutions and dimensions may vary significantly.

Speaker system device

This device includes the following elements:

  1. Speakers are otherwise known as dynamic loudspeaker. They consist of an edge corrugation, a membrane (diffuser, diaphragm), a voice coil, a core and other parts. A TV speaker system solves the problem of focusing sound and reproducing bass.
  2. The acoustic system enclosure has design options: closed, with an acoustic impedance panel (with many holes on the back wall), with a phase inverter, a bandpass subwoofer, a “maze” and others.
  3. To supply their frequencies (low, medium, high) to each speaker head, there are crossover filters (“crossovers”).
  4. Connecting via audio cables.
  5. Power amplifiers can be built into the case or outside it.

speaker system device

What is AS for?

With the help of speakers, you can amplify or improve the sound, and speakers are the last link in the audio system. They have found application in various fields:

  1. Mass, for listening and karaoke.
  2. Hi-Fi and High-End classes for audiophiles and music lovers.
  3. Home cinema.
  4. For PC and laptop.
  5. To amplify the microphone.
  6. Concert are combined with musical instruments.
  7. Studio.
  8. Automotive.
  9. For background sound.
  10. For private listening (stereo headphones).
  11. Portable speaker system for outdoor recreation.

Speaker Specifications

When purchasing acoustics, it is necessary to ensure that all links (amplifier, speakers, subwoofer, switching) are correctly combined in terms of parameters:

  1. The number of lanes.
  2. The amplitude-frequency characteristic (AFC) depends on the number of oscillations: the higher the sound, the higher the oscillation frequency. This depends on the volume.
  3. The sound power (intensity) is the power per unit surface, measured in W / m² or in W / cm², the acoustic system for the home has 100 watts.
  4. Sound pressure occurs as excess relative to atmospheric pressure and is measured at 1 N/m² = 10 bar.
  5. Sensitivity: the dynamic range (playback of different volumes) depends on its value.
  6. The nominal resistance (impedance) is standardized and has the following values: 4, 8 and 16 ohms. The speaker impedance must be equal to or greater than the output impedance of the amplifier.

Types of acoustic systems

Depending on the provided installation methods, the following types of speakers are distinguished:

  1. Bookshelf speakers are designed up to 18 m², placed on special racks or stands. If placed on a table, they will resonate and produce unnecessary noise.
  2. Floor acoustics is used in rooms larger than 18 m². To choose the right receiver or amplifier, read the characteristics of the speaker system and select the appropriate “power” parameter.
  3. Wall acoustics save space in the room, used instead of bookshelf speakers for home theater.
  4. Built-in acoustics for limited space is installed on the ceiling and walls.
  5. Monitors for sound recording in studios.
  6. Multimedia acoustics combines acoustics and an amplifier.
  7. The subwoofer is used in stereo systems to increase bass in home theaters, a separate audio track is recorded for it.

Active speaker system

According to the principles of operation and connection, all speakers can be divided into active and passive. The active one has a built-in receiver that matches the system itself in terms of all input / output characteristics, so distortion is minimal, no cable is needed. The home speaker system is a multimedia active system that allows you to combine inexpensive computer solutions and listen to music in high quality.

Passive speaker system

Connecting to an external amplifier is their advantage: selection of components is possible. There is an inconvenience of carrying due to weight and volume, the need for additional equipment. The acoustic system for a computer should be no more than 20–30 W, since the permitted level of continuous noise in residential premises is no more than 40 decibels. The amplifier has almost no effect on the sound quality.

passive speaker system

What speakers are considered the best?

Choosing an audio system is difficult due to the wide variety of brands, models and trim levels. To decide which speaker system is best for your home, you need to know for what purposes it will be used. In this case, the best options would be:

  1. For TV with a power of 80 W and a sensitivity of up to 102 dB with a closed case or with a phase inverter.
  2. For home theater there are passive and active, models of wired and wireless connection. The calculation of power is made based on the norms of 8–10 W per 1 m². Hi-Fi and Hi-End models.
  3. For music: 90 dB sensitivity is enough.

Speaker rating

The list of the best models includes such acoustic systems:

  1. For Yamaha NS-F160 Home Theater System with passive speakers. The recommended amplifier power is from 50 to 300 watts.
  2. Yamaha NS F160

  3. Passive speaker system for home Yamaha NS-555 with three channels, a power of 100 W and a frequency range of 35–35,000 Hz, it consists of several speakers of different sizes interconnected. For music lovers and everyone who loves music.
  4. Yamaha NS555

  5. Heco Celan GT 302 – with a special high-frequency head allows you to expand the sound range.
  6. Heco Celan GT 302

  7. Monitor Audio Bronze – premium class with Bi-wiring connection.
  8. Monitor Audio Bronze

  9. Acoustic system JBL Control 28-1 – two-way, with a wide coverage, can be installed both indoors and outdoors, for example, in shops, cafes, fitness clubs, educational institutions, parks.
  10. photo9

Connecting speakers

To complete the task, you need to go through several steps:

  1. Before connecting, study the technical characteristics of the speakers and determine what impedance the amplifier is designed for. If more than two speakers are connected, then the total impedance must be higher than that of the amplifier.
  2. Turn off the power to the amplifier before working on cables.
  3. Using a 100% copper speaker cable, the best speaker systems are connected: ordinary speakers – two-wire, for home theater – four-wire. It is desirable to calculate the cross section.
  4. Determine the type of connectors at the speakers for connecting wires: spring clips or screw terminals.
  5. It is important to observe the “phasing”: connecting the contacts to the corresponding “-” (black) and “+” (red).

The multimedia speaker system produces high-quality stereo or surround sound under the following conditions:

  1. The distance between the speakers should be 1.5–4.5 m, to the back wall – 0.5 m, to the side wall – 1 m.
  2. The subwoofer is placed in front of the front acoustics, which broadcasts music and sound effects.
  3. The main speakers (right and left) are located at the level of the listener’s ear at an angle of 22-30° relative to the center channel.

DIY speaker system

It’s no secret that “proprietary” equipment is expensive, so why not make a device for sound reproduction with your own hands. Accessories can be ordered online. The choice of materials for the case, the number of parts, components depends on what speakers are needed. Case options: chipboard, MDF material, plywood, laminate, more exotic from the old car radio, PVC pipe, paper. To make it, you will need tools: pliers, a set of screwdrivers, a hacksaw (for wood), a file, a chisel, a hand drill and a set of drills.

Manufacturing steps:

  1. According to the drawing on the prepared sheets (chipboard, plywood, MDF), the walls of the future building are marked.
  2. Details are cut out.
  3. The walls are fastened with glue or screws.
  4. To seal the housing, the slots at the place where the walls are joined are filled with felt impregnated with glue. For a removable rear panel, stick a seal (polymer or rubber).
  5. If the system is closed, damping material (cotton wool or foam rubber) is placed inside the column.
  6. The length of the phase inverter is selected empirically.
  7. An amplifier and a power supply are attached to the finished case, then connected to each other.
  8. Speakers are placed. If there is one speaker, it is connected to one of the outputs of the amplifier, if there is a second one, to the second channel of the amplifier.
  9. Holes are drilled on the back wall, and connectors are connected to the input of the amplifier and to the input of the power supply.
  10. All solder joints are isolated.
  11. If there are several speakers, a crossover filter (crossover) is connected so that they play in their own frequency band.